Canadian Electrical Industry News Week

Evolution Lighting

Andrew Parker

Until recently, lighting controls were predominantly systems of relay panels with low voltage switches and some form of scheduling or time clock. Occupancy sensors provided automatic switching of relays based on detecting the presence of a person in the space. These systems used line and low voltage components, but the communication technology was based on an analogue platform and typically a high (on) or low (off) signal. The technology limited the type and amount of data that could be exchanged, but was essentially an open protocol that allowed a high degree of compatibility between manufacturers.

Analogue wiring was cumbersome and usually required low voltage wires to be “homerun” connected from each occupancy sensor or low voltage wall switch back to the relay panel. The connections within the panel, usually defined (or limited) the associations between the devices and the zones that they controlled.

What changed?

Technology innovations have brought about a revolution in lighting controls by leveraging a change from analogue to digital communications hardware and protocols. The result equates to simplified installation and increased capabilities.
Energy codes have also become more stringent in a stepwise progression with available technology and in response to increases in demand. While it was once enough to add occupancy sensors to automatically turn lights on and off, the new codes require far more, including:
• manual “on”
• bi-level lighting via switching or dimming
• automatic ‘off’ by time schedule or vacancy sensor
• daylighting, under certain circumstances

Examples of updated codes are:
• Ontario Building Code Supplementary Standard SB-10
• ASHRAE 90.1-2010 Standard for Energy Efficiency for Commercial Buildings
• Canada’s National Energy Code for Buildings NECB 2011

Digital vs. analogue
Digital communications protocols and hardware simplify the architecture of systems designed to meet the new requirements. Added intelligence allows hardware devices to be integrated (e.g., two or three relays in one “powerpack”), and it simplifies installation by allowing the daisy chaining of devices rather than the customary homerun wiring method. In addition, the sequence of operations may be programmed by software rather than defined by wiring or dipswitch settings. Digital technology makes addressable devices and wireless mesh networks feasible and further enhances capabilities by allowing local dimming solutions that don’t require a large dimming panel infrastructure.

But while the perceived advantages of digital are indisputable, available technology is also facilitating a departure from previously established standards and a proliferation of proprietary systems. This divergence is likely to continue and will further constrict interoperability among manufacturers until the market drives a change.

Fortunately, proprietary communication can be adapted to include dimming drivers or ballasts that use open protocols such as 0-10V or DALI. These systems can also be adapted via gateways to other building systems using common building automation protocols such as BACnet or LONworks.

Wireless technology
Wireless technology promises a further simplification of control systems, allowing for less time, and wire, to install. A number of factors must be addressed, however, when considering wireless, including:
• The design of the system. Is it open protocol, allowing for interchangeable components and manufacturers, or is it proprietary and designed as a single system? Think PC vs. Mac.
• Power supply. Is it self-powered, wired, or does it require batteries?
• Is it secure? Since the control is broadcast over the air, can an outside “hacker” take control of the lighting or, worse, use the system as an access point to the computer network?
• And reliable? Can the system rebound from loss of communication or loss of a device on the network?
• Interference. Is the system susceptible to other systems’ radio frequency interference (RFI) or unintended electromagnetic interference (EMI)?

New wireless protocols
EnOcean is a technology supplier of energy harvesting (self-powered) wireless modules to OEMs. It is based on the open standard ISO/IEC 14543-3-10, Wireless Short-Packet (WSP) Protocol and is interoperable among different manufacturers and devices. Used in switches, sensors, gateways and more, it is notable for its battery-free wireless light switch.

ZigBee is an open standard, RF (radio frequency) based protocol that uses low-power digital radios at a low data rate. The protocol provides long battery life over a secure digital network. It is based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard for wireless personal area networks (WPANs), and commonly used for indoor and outdoor lighting fixtures, sensors and switches. It is notable for its self-organizing mesh network. To ensure compatibility, products using the technology must be ZigBee certified.

Software applicationsand interface
As the complexity of control systems increases, efficient software with user-friendly interfaces becomes paramount. Applications, especially browser-based or mobile, have flourished. Central control via drop-down menus or interactive floor plans is in widespread use. In addition, touch screens and personal apps can provide local control from a user’s workspace. Software offers much more than just lighting system monitoring, with additional features like operation, configuration, energy reporting, outages and lumen maintenance reporting topping the list of added intelligence.


SB-10 Code update
Effective January 1, 2014 and included in Volume 2 of the Ontario Building Code 2010 revision, Supplementary Standard SB-10 has been updated to include the 2011 National Energy Code of Canada for Buildings as a compliance path. The updated code also makes changes to the ASHRAE 90.1-2010 prescriptive compliance path, including:
• excluding the requirement for automatic receptacle controls in private and open offices
• clarifying the surface parking area lighting control requirement to reduce lighting power by 30 per cent within a zone of lighting. The code previously implied the stepping down of lighting power within each fixture
• eliminating stairway lighting controls where lighting has been designed to meet minimum levels required by the building code

The future of controls
So what will the future of lighting controls look like? Fixtures with dimming capability and integrated wireless controls are already being introduced to the market to provide cost effective personal control in individual workspaces and to enhance energy savings. In addition, building design is providing better access to ambient sunlight, requiring better daylighting systems to capture the energy saving opportunity. Addressable dimming systems will unobtrusively maximize the effect.
Other anticipated advancements in technology include software that learns operating patterns and suggests ways to maximize energy savings. Time wise adjustment of correlated colour temperature (CCT) to match our circadian rhythm is expected to improve hospital recovery times and provide more comfortable lighting. Also, load-shedding functionality to ease supply shortfalls is becoming feasible and will be a better alternative to unscheduled outages.

Eventually, a balance of open protocols and proprietary systems will facilitate the integration of these new applications and gently wean us off the most widely understood, open protocol, analogue control – the line voltage toggle switch!
Andrew Parker, P.Eng., LC, LEED AP, is a controls and lighting specialist at Salex in Toronto and a member of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America. Salex is the largest lighting agency in southern Ontario, distributing and facilitating commercial lighting systems for architects, engineers and designers; www.salex.ca.

This article is the first of two. Part II, about the evolution of dimming control systems, will appear in a subsequent issue.

Changing Scene

  • Prev
  Malcolm Bird, General Manager of Fusetek, and Frank Dunnigan, CEO of Techspan Industries, ...
  EiKO, a manufacturer and distributor of premium lighting products, is expanding its ...
  The new CSA C83-17 offers utilities a comprehensive list of components, with critical ...
  Schneider Electric Canada has just launched Go Green in the City 2018, its global ...
  A new report published by Philips Lighting and SmartCitiesWorld highlights drivers and ...

 Electrician Forum Brought to You by Schneider Electric             

The Electrician Forum is a monthly column that provides valuable information to electricians and electrical contractors on current industry trends and concerns. 

Schneider ElectricSponsored by Schneider Electric

In this issue: 

Owning your own business is something many of us have dreamt of doing. Who wouldn’t want to be their own boss? It is a valid question that many entering the electrical trade consider. However, dreams tend to create an image that doesn’t always suit reality. Surviving in the residential electrical market involves a lot of out of the box thinking and as we have said and can’t stress enough, hard work. To gain insight into the various challenges faced by small electrical contractors EIN sat down with Steve Beeby, Master Electrician, and owner/operator of Beehive Electric, as small residential electrical contracting company based in Elmvale, Ontario.

read more...

Watch a portion of the interview conducted by Electrical Industry Canada with Steve Beeby of Beehive Electric

 

Codes and Regulations Brought to You by the CSA Group

  • Prev
In this article: Section 58 — Passenger Ropeways and Similar Equipment. Rule 58-000 ...
  Unauthorized CSA Group certification marks have been found on wiring by Triumph Cable ...
In this article: Section 52 — Diagnostic imaging installations. The CE code is a ...
In this article: Section 46 — Emergency Power Supply, Unit Equipment, Exit Signs, and ...
  In this article: Section 44 — Theatre Installations. The CE Code is a ...
CSA has published C22.2 No. 60947-7-3, the harmonized standard for low-voltage switchgear and ...
  Electric welders. The CE Code is a comprehensive document. Sometimes it can seem ...
  In this article: Section 40 — Electric cranes and hoists. The CE Code is a ...

CSA

Now in its 24th edition, the 2018 Canadian Electrical Code, Part I includes a number of significant updates and changes to better help electrical workers in the safe maintenance of electrical equipment and create safer electrical installations.

This edition features important revisions to many sections. For example, Section 26 now mandates the use of tamper-resistant receptacles in additional areas where children may be present. Section 62 now requires ground fault circuit interrupter protection for heating devices and controls in proximity to tubs, sinks, and shower stalls. Section 10 has been updated, reorganized, and significantly reduced in length.

 Read more...

 



Tools for the Trade

  • Prev
  IDEAL Industries has introduced Combination Drill Taps to its tool lineup. Combining the ...
  Stripping and crimping device, 100 - 240 V input voltage, for insulated ferrules with a ...
Professional all-in-one cutter/stripper for coaxial and twisted pair cables     ...
  Klein Tools' Coax Explorrer 2 tests coaxial cable and maps up to 4 locations   ...
  Ideal Industries' T-14 wire stripper s are ideal for all professionals working within the ...
  The ATS850 conveyor eliminates all types of electro static discharge requirements. ...
  Lorik Tool & Automation has the experience and ability to manufacture a variety of ...
  Ideal Industries' 26 piece insulated Journeyman kit is ideal for new electricians or for ...
  Klein Tools Deluxe Fish Rod Set comes in 19 pieces that when assembled can fish wire and ...
  BendWorks Software was designed to help electrical contractors adopt this new process ...

Product News

  • Prev
  Nexus is an emergency lighting management system that allows the user to see the ...
  WET BEAM 4 LED is a linear luminaire specially designed – and listed for – ...
  The Tessera family of luminaires features a quiet aesthetic that can adapt to any ...
  LIFELINE is a refined and minimalist track lighting system that can accommodate two ...
  Inspired by the early mission builders, this four sided lantern has an all metal frame ...
  SGi’s 1 watt dimmable StarBurst LED Step Light promotes equal amounts of beauty and ...
  The BL neonVIEW Series family of direct-view, linear lighting products are ...
  Adding fashion, flexibility and ultra brightness to your various indoor linear ...
  Create breathtaking interiors with the power to attract and engage, surprise and delight, ...
  he Pioneer Lighting line of slim low profile LED troffers is now available with ...

 

Peers & Profiles

  • Prev
David Johns is a unique and dedicated individual both at home and in the workplace. At home he is a ...
    Sean Freeman is a vibrant, enthusiastic and selfless individual who has taken his ...
  Automation companies are drivers of innovation, and have penetrated near every industry ...
Total Electrical Solutions was founded in 2013 by Jeremy Herrington in Quispamsis, on the outskirts ...
Andrew MacLeod is a territory sales manager with Leviton Manufacturing of Canada in British ...
  Floyd Lau founded Amptek Technologies in 2002 as an end to end engineering design ...
Mike Marsh, President and CEO of SaskPower, has been a leading figure in Saskatchewan’s ...
Gordon MacDonald is a cheerful, driven individual who loves to be challenged, a trait that suits ...
  Most of us have a difficult enough time managing one job and a home life. However, some ...
  Since 2012 Barnstormer has advanced the abilities of their brewery with the installation ...

Copper $US Dollar price per pound

 Sean Freeman

Sean Freeman is a vibrant, enthusiastic and selfless individual who has taken his trade expertise beyond that of a simple career. Not only is he a Master Electrician but he has traveled around the world as an electrical technician delegate with the Red Cross Emergency Response Unit. His skills are a vital part of emergency response and disaster relief.

In 2013 Sean responded to Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines. In 2014 Sean spent almost a month in Kenema, Sierra Leone working at the Ebola Treatment Centre. There he was responsible for ensuring electricity and clean water were available, and worked to strengthen the infrastructure of the facility. 

read more

Kerrwil Publications

538 Elizabeth Street, Midland,Ontario, Canada L4R2A3 +1 705 527 7666
2016 All rights reserved

Use of this Site constitutes acceptance of our Privacy Policy (effective 1.1.2016)
The material on this site may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with the prior written permission of Kerrwil