Canadian Electrical Industry News Week

Mar 7, 2021

Mark MullinsBy Mark Mullins

As an electrical professional, there’s no doubt that you’re now being exposed to Power over Ethernet (PoE) as a means of delivering low-voltage DC power over network cabling to LED lights and a variety of other components — from nurse call and building automation devices, to cameras and access controllers. And with a 90% growth in the next 10 years from PoE lighting alone, it’s no wonder that the IBEW is experiencing huge demand as a training delivery agent for the Network Cabling Specialist (NCS) designation they’re now referring to as “the trade of the future.”

Whether you’re already designing and installing PoE systems, or gearing up to seize this amazing opportunity, you need to ensure that your PoE projects go smoothly. And that comes down to understanding how PoE works and how it’s classified — and then learning the best practices to ensure it will work and will keep working.

A safe handshake with class

You’re already familiar with how DC power works and are likely used to implementing conversion technology and step-down transformers to power LED lighting. But PoE is a bit different in that it eliminates the need for any AC power or conversion, delivering DC power directly over the same twisted-pair cable used to connect devices to a local area network and enable data transmission.

In a PoE circuit, the DC power is delivered to a powered device (PD) from power sourcing equipment (PSE), which is typically a network switch located in a telecom room. It can also be a midspan PoE injector for scenarios where a PoE switch is not available. In all PoE implementations, power is delivered by the PSE only after it is requested by the PD, and if the PD is disconnected, the PSE will remove power. This “handshake” that happens between the PD and PSE makes PoE safer than other power delivery methods that always have power flowing, regardless of whether you’ve got a device plugged in. Plus, we’re only talking about voltages in the range of 43 to 57 VDC so it’s considered safety extra low voltage (SELV).

In a PoE installation, power can be delivered differently depending on the power level and type of PoE being used, which is defined by its IEEE standard. Early PoE standards, like IEEE 802.3af Type 1 that delivers a maximum of 15.4 W (13 W available at the device) and IEEE 802.3at Type 2 (PoE+) that delivers a maximum power to 30 W (25.5 W available at the device), deliver power over just two pairs of a four-pair cable. For more power hungry devices, IEEE 802.3bt can also deliver power across all four pairs, either via Type 3 that delivers a maximum of 60 W (51 W available at the device) or Type 4 that delivers a maximum of 90 W (71.3 W available at the device). Regardless of which type is being used, DC power is transmitted over the pairs by applying common-mode voltage, meaning that current is split evenly between each pair and between the two conductors of a pair.

Since PoE standards and types are a bit confusing and encompass a wide range of power, classes are used to further define the power. There are a total of eight classes ranging from Class 1 with just 4 W delivered, to Class 8 with the maximum 90 W delivered as shown in the table below.

PoE Types

PoE Types, Standards and Classes

To ease implementation, the Ethernet Alliance has a PoE certification Program for easily identifying PSE and PDs by class to determine compatibility. This program uses a 300-page test plan and approved equipment to certify products and provides a simple, easy-to-understand marking system. Just look at the marks and if the PSE is equal or higher to the PD, they are compatible.

Ethernet Alliance Marks

Ethernet Alliance Marks for PDs (left) and PSE (right)

A vital PoE test parameter

If you’re already installing low-voltage twisted-pair cabling for networks, you should be familiar with the need to certify the cable plant to ensure standards compliance and achieve a vendor warranty. While cable certification ensures that parameters such as length, attenuation, crosstalk and return loss are in accordance with industry standards, when it comes to PoE there’s another parameter to consider.

Fluke

As previously mentioned, PoE is delivered via common mode split between pairs and between conductors of a pair. For this power split to happen, the DC resistance between two conductors in a pair and the DC resistance between pairs must be balanced. If DC resistance is not balanced, it can cause PoE to malfunction and distort the data signals transmitting on the same pairs. Industry standards specify the maximum DC resistance unbalance within a pair and from pair-to-pair.

While field testing for DC resistance unbalance is technically optional, it is highly recommended for PoE installations. And don’t be fooled by DC resistance unbalance specifications on a vendor’s cable — DC resistance unbalance is more often caused by poor workmanship such as exceeding maximum bend radius, not maintaining pair twist as close to the point of termination as possible, or not terminating each conductor consistently. While conductor termination consistency can be easier to achieve when using a multi-wire punchdown tool (plus it can ease hand fatigue), field testing for DC resistance unbalance is really the only way to ensure performance for PoE after installation. Thankfully, there are now industry testers on the market that allow you to easily add DC resistance unbalance testing to the mix. The tester screens below shows testing results for DC resistance unbalance on individual pairs (PAIR UBL) and between pairs (P2P UBL).

DC Resistance Testers

Testers are available that test DC resistance unbalance on individual pairs and from pair to pair.

The right tool to troubleshoot

Even if you’ve certified the cable plant and did the recommended DC resistance unbalance testing, things can still go wrong — especially if the PSE and PD are not compatible. Knowing the class of the PSE and the PD is the first step to troubleshooting PoE. Unfortunately, not all PSE and PDs have the Ethernet Alliance marking, or the mark may not be easily accessible or visible. A PD may be located up to 100 meters away from the PSE back in the telecom room, and you need to check the class of both to know if they’re compatible. Furthermore, if you’re checking multiple PDs, they may not necessarily be powered by the same PSE. Even if the PSE and PD do end up being compatible, there could still be a problem with the cable itself. You could waste half a day just tracking the cable and accessing the PSE.

One way to ease this process, is to use a troubleshooting tool specifically designed for PoE. These tools are cost-effective and easy to use, allowing you to simply plug into an outlet at the PD location to find out if it’s connected to PSE and what the specific class of power is on the link to ensure if will support the device. Some of these tools will even identify the data speed on the link, as well as length, potential cable breaks or other failures — all right there from the device end.

While you may be new to PoE, it doesn’t have to be complicated and you can easily ensure your installations go smoothly by including DC resistance unbalance in your certification testing and choosing the right troubleshooting tool.

Mark Mullins is one of the founding members of Fluke Networks, starting in 1993. He has been involved in all of the key areas of the business, including cable testing, network troubleshooting and analysis. He currently oversees the company’s Global Communications efforts, keeping customers and prospects up-to date on cable testing products and technologies. As a member of the Ethernet Alliance Marketing Committee, he is responsible for promoting the Gen 2 Power over Ethernet Certification program. He holds a B.S. in Computer Science and an MBA from the University of Washington.

What’s Your Breaking Point?

SimPRO Industry Bundled Program

If you’ve ever learned how to ride a bike, a surfboard or even tried your hand at yoga– you know how difficult it can be to find balance. You can focus on a fixed point in the distance and shift your weight around all you want. But at the end of the day, there are often things out of your personal control that can send you tumbling.

We’re all experiencing what it feels like to be thrown off our balance right now with looming economic uncertainty. If this uncertainty has already impacted your business, you’re not alone. How can your business continue to thrive in the face of challenges out of your control?

 

Read More


2021 Canadian Electrical Code Overview of Changes

EIN CSA Group Logo 2022 400CSA C22.1:21, Canadian Electrical Code, Part I contains many updates and changes that are potentially significant to electrical professionals. This online, self-guided course provides the key changes and impacts to the industry presented in an easy-to-follow format.

 Designed for professionals with a good working knowledge of the Code and who solely need the key changes including general updates or those made for clarification, safety, and new products and systems. Key changes due to Rule relocation or deletion are also noted.

This course may help save valuable time to help keep electrical projects safe and in compliance. This training is developed with input from a broad cross-section of electrical industry experts and with cooperation from all provinces, territories and several key jurisdictions across Canada. 

Read More


Changing Scene

  • Prev
Canada announced an investment of nearly $15.5 million from the federal government for ...
Liteline are very excited to announce that Liteline Corporation has acquired Contraste Lighting. ...
E.B. Horsman & Son (EBH) has announced their Victoria branch has moved to a new location as ...
Canada’s Building Trades Unions has been selected as an intermediary for the Apprenticeship Service ...
More skilled trades workers can seek certification in Nova Scotia with changes the Province is ...
Procore Technologies, Inc. has announced it is working with Amazon Web Services (AWS) to ...
The federal governemnt has officially launched a call for proposals (CFP) for the  ...
The Electrical Contractors Association of BC (ECABC) has announced the impending departure of ...
The Minister of Employment, Workforce Development and Disability Inclusion, Carla Qualtrough was at ...
The launch of the Apprenticeship Service stands to help overcome financial barriers employers face ...

 

Yukon Canada

Communities across the North and Arctic are prioritizing cleaner, more reliable energy sources, as they continue to feel the impacts of climate change. By investing in renewable energy initiatives that support energy independence and economic development, we can keep our air cleaner and build resilient, healthy communities for everyone to call home, all while creating good-paying, sustainable jobs and lowering harmful greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

The Yukon is leading the country in its pursuit of cleaner energy and climate change initiatives. 

 

 

Read more


 

Linde

Linde announced it has inaugurated the world's first hydrogen refueling system for passenger trains in Bremervörde, Germany.

Linde’s hydrogen refueling system, which it built, owns and operates, will refuel 14 hydrogen-powered passenger trains, enabling each train to run for 1,000 km emission-free on a single refueling. It has a total capacity of around 1,600 kg of hydrogen per day, making it one of the largest hydrogen refueling systems ever built. Linde’s future-ready hydrogen refueling system has been designed and constructed with the ability to integrate future on-site green hydrogen generation. The new hydrogen trains will replace existing diesel-powered trains.

Read More

 


 

Chris Lane

The Continental Automated Buildings Association (CABA) Board is pleased to announce the appointment of Chris Lane of Johnson Controls to the CABA Board of Directors. As Director of Product Management for Building Automation System (BAS) products at Johnson Controls, Lane leads a team of product managers responsible for designing the strategy and direction for Johnson Controls’ global portfolio of BAS products. 

"I’m honored to have the opportunity to join CABA’s board and support their vision to empower connectivity among people, spaces and technology,” said Lane. 

 

Read More


 

Canadian Electrical Contractor Discussion Group: Can You Count the Deficiencies?

EIN CECD 400Have you ever been called to fix the work of a 'handyman'?

"Was supposedly done by a"certified ' electrician....told the homeowner that he got a $266 permit....no record at TSBC. Can you count the deficiencies?"

"There is a second panel change in the triplex also.......even more deficiencies. Think the guy was a glorified handyman. Ones not obvious: 240 BB heat hooked up 120....drier on 2p20....range on 2p50....water heater fed with 2c14 Bx on 2p15."

Go HERE to join the discussion

 


 

Grimard is more competitive and produces estimates 3X faster with Procore

Procore

When the pandemic lockdowns started in March of 2020, Grimard (an electrical contractor) had to decide whether to shut down its operations entirely or implement a new platform with people who were now freely available for work. Once they implemented Procore, they found a way to efficiently communicate with stakeholders and offer full transparency in terms of project costs and planning. It also allowed Grimard to utilize historical data to make project estimates more accurate. Grimard was able to streamline its bidding process, which made it more attractive to potential clients and helped the business grow.

Read More


 



 

HellermannTyton Double Slit Conduit

HellermannTyton announces HelaGuard Double-Slit Corrugated Conduit. The two-piece solution features one semi-circular tube that snaps over another to envelop a wire or cable bundle. This makes it possible to add flexible corrugated protection to wiring that is already connected on both ends.

Standard conduit requires installers to guide cabling into and through the length of tubing. That is less of an issue at the time of manufacture. But if the ends of the wire are soldered to a terminal or otherwise inaccessible, non-slit conduit – and even single-slit conduit – can be tedious or impossible to apply.

 

 

Read More


 

Greenlee Mobile Bending Table

By Blake Marchand

For the new Bending Table for Greenlee® 881 Series Benders, Greenlee Tools, Inc. set out to improve ergonomics and product security.  Previously, contractors usually had to disassemble their bender unit for relocation off the jobsite due to it being harder to secure on the jobsite. New anti-theft features incorporated into the bending table product design allowed the cart and its accessories to be more fully locked. 

This increases contractor productivity by helping reduce the need for tedious setup and tear down of the bender due to off-jobsite storage. Greenlee wanted to make the Mobile Bending Table as versatile as possible and intentionally designed it to fit through most 32” wide doors.  

Read More


 

Siemens PBSI Sept1 GIF fire test

Product News

  • Prev
The ST90 series, a new twist on your favourite Star Teck fittings, designed to save time, space and ...
SMD PCB terminal blocks with Push-in CAGE CLAMP® connection technology and push-buttons. ...
The M18™ FORCE LOGIC™ 6T Linear Utility Crimper is the newest member of the 6T family of crimpers, ...
Signify introduces a new app, features and products for its WiZ smart lighting system to ...
PataBid has developed a groundbreaking AI powered, cloud-based construction estimating ...
Klein Tools introduces its new line of Digital Multimeters, featuring a refreshed look plus ...
A non-Belgian may not yet be able to imagine an ICE, a sweet (praline in "Belgian") melting on the ...
SATCO announced their latest LED recessed retrofits offered in two wattage options for direct ...
When access to your walls is an issue, the Smart-Way wall raceway allows you to route from the ...
Galaxy VS is a highly efficient, modular, easy-to-deploy 20 to 150 kW (480 V), 10 to 150 kW (400 ...


DCC-11 EV Energy Management System

DCC-11, manufactured by Thermolec, is an energy management system designed to allow the connection of an EV charger to the main feeder of a panel without affecting the load calculation. 

HOW IT WORKS 

  1. DCC does a real-time reading of the total power consumption of a home or condo electrical panel;

  2. It detects when the total power consumption of the main circuit breaker exceeds 80% and temporarily de-energizes the charger.

 

 

Read More


 

 

Klein Tools Knee Pads

Klein Tools introduces Lightweight and Heavy Duty Knee Pad sleeves, both of which feature a compact design for all day comfort and protection.

Knee Pad Sleeves

  • Lightweight and Heavy Duty Knee Pad Sleeves can be worn under or over pants for all day wear.
  • Unique design keeps knee pads close to the body for a second-skin fit allowing for agility when working in tight spaces.
  • Lightweight, breathable mesh back to keep you cool and comfortable.
  • Elastic cuff with slip-resistant silicone helps knee pads stay in place.

 

Read More


 

 

Sponsored Content

Fire Protection for Lithium-ion Battery Energy Storage Systems

PB-1-LithiumIonBatteryEnergyStorage-200.jpg

Lithium-ion storage facilities contain high-energy batteries combined with highly flammable electrolytes. In addition, they are prone to quick ignition and explosion in a worst-case scenario. Such fires can have a significant financial impact on organizations. Rapid detection of electrolyte gas particles and extinguishing are the key to a successful fire protection concept. Since December 2019, Siemens has been offering a VdS-certified fire protection concept for stationary Li-ion battery storage systems.

Click HERE to learn more.


Peers & Profiles

  • Prev
Watt’s the Word is a recently launched Electrical Industry Podcast hosted by Zack Hartle and ...
Allana Kellett-Jamieson loves working in the electrical sector and is proud of the great focus ...
As the head of ABB Canada's electrification business unit, Éric Deschênes is no newcomer to the ...
Karen Pullen knows what it’s like to be the only woman on a construction site, and as a proud ...
As of February 2021, Martin Stephenson is the new President and CEO of Signify Canada.   ...
EngWorks was formed in 2004 as an electrical engineering and consulting firm by Allan Bozek, “After ...
Headquartered in Concord, Ontario, Mercury Lighting services national retail, ...
Among the recipients of the 2021 Clean50 Awards announced last month is Carolina Gallo, Vice ...
Sarah Silverstein is a principal with Liteline along side her two brothers Mark and Daniel. ...
As a 34-year-old female owner of an electrical contracting business, Danielle Gray may be unique. ...


sdgs poster 936 enBy Blake Marchand

With many organizations, governments and policymakers finding it challenging to implement the UN Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs) , CSA Group has developed a methodology for mapping CSA standards to UN Sustainability Goals (SDGs) aimed at demonstrating how organizations, governments and policymakers can use CSA standards as an effective tool in developing and implementing their SDG strategies. The methodology was developed as part of a research project initiated by CSA Group, completed in collaboration with University of Guelph, Niagara College and the Toronto Metropolitan University. To support the methodology, CSA Group also launched an interactive searchable database that allows standards users to quickly find out how and where CSA standards support specific UN SDG targets.

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development was adopted by all UN member countries in 2015. The agenda includes 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals that aim to promote and provide strategies to improve health, education, inequality, and the economy while prioritizing climate change and the environment. 

Read More


 

EIN 21 TSBC EJTC 400Effective October 1, 2022 the Canadian Electrical Code, Part I, 25th Edition, Safety Standard for Electrical Installations, Canadian Standards Association Standard C22.1-21 is adopted as the BC Electrical Code. All electrical work that is subject to the BC Electrical Code must be in compliance with the updated edition effective November, 30, 2022. 

All code-related information bulletins and directives that have been issued to date remain in effect. All potentially impacted information bulletins and directives will be reviewed for consistency with the new code edition and revised if necessary. 

Read More


 

Copper $US Dollar price per pound

Kerrwil Publications Great Place to Work. Certified December 2019 - December 2020

538 Elizabeth Street, Midland,Ontario, Canada L4R2A3 +1 705 527 7666
©2022 All rights reserved

Use of this Site constitutes acceptance of our Privacy Policy (effective 1.1.2016)
The material on this site may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with the prior written permission of Kerrwil